Video on demand


Video on demand (display) ( VOD ) are systems qui allow users to select and watch / listen to video or audio glad Such As movies and TV shows When They choose to, Rather than HAVING to watch at a specific broadcast time, qui Was the Prevalent approach with over-the-air broadcasting during much of the 20th century. IPTV technology is often used to bring televisions and personal computers . [1]

Television VOD systems can Either “stream” happy through a set-top box , a computer or other device, Allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device Such As a computer, digital video recorder (also called Expired a personal video recorder ) Or portable media player for viewing at any time. The majorité of cable – and telephone company-based television providers offer Both VOD streaming, Including pay-per-view and free happy, whereby a user buys or selects a movie or television program and it begins to play on the television set Almost instantaneously, Or download to a digital video recorder (DVR), or downloaded from a PC or a portable device, for viewing in the future. Internet television , using the Internet , is an increasingly popular form of video on demand. VOD can also be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Apple iTunes online content store.

Some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatback or armrests or offered via mobile media players . Some video on demand services, such as Netflix , use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content, which is mainly movies and TV shows. Other services use an advertising-based model, where access is free for Internet users, and the platforms rely on selling advertisements as their main revenue stream.

Functionality

This screenshot shows the VIA Smart TV.

Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with all the features of portable media players and DVD players . Some VOD systems That store and stream programs from hard disk drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind digital videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks , in which case they can provide very rapid response to users. Streaming video servers can also serve a wider community via a WAN , in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are equipped with cable modems or DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are usually placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created rental called Video Head-End Office (VHO).

History

The first video on demand (VOD) systems used tapes as the source of realtime video streams . GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT & T providing all components. By 1992 VOD servers were supplying previously encoded digital video from disks and DRAM . [2]

In the US the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT & T resulted in Baby Bells. Following this Cable Communications Act of 1984 . In 1993 the National Communication and Information Infrastructure (NII) Was Proposed and Passed by the US House and senate, THUS opening the way for the seven Baby Bells Ameritech , Bell Atlantic , BellSouth , NYNEX , Pacific Telesis , Southwestern Bell and US WEST to Implement VOD systems.

In November 1992 Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. Tiger Shark. Concurrently Digital Equipment was a scalable video server (configured from small to large for a range of video streams). Bell Atlantic selected IBM and April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, serving 50 video streams.

In June 1993 US West filed for a consistant system of the Digital Equipment Corporation Interactive Information Server, with Scientific Atlanta supplier providing the network, and 3DO as the set-top box , with video streams and other information to be Deployed to 2500 homes. In 1994-5, the VOD at several cities. 330,000 subscribers in Denver, 290,000 in Minneapolis, and 140,000 in Portland.

Many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server, network and set-top. Microsoft, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI, and other servers. The DEC server system was used in more than one way. [3] [4] [5] [6]

The December VOD server architecture interactive gateways used to set up video streams and other information for delivery from’any of a wide number of VAX servers, Enabling it in 1993 to more than 100,000 media streams with full VCR -like functionality. In 1994 it would upgrade to the DEC Alpha computer for its VOD servers, allowing it to support more than a million users. [7] By 1994 the Oracle scalable VOD system used massively parallel processors to support from 500 to 30,000 users. The SGI system supported 4000 users. [8] The servers connected to networks of increasingly large cities.

In the UK, from September 1994, a VOD service formed a major part of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial [9] in England. Provided this video and data to 250 homes and a number of schools connected to the Cambridge Cable Network (later share of NTL, now Virgin Media ). The MPEG-1 encoded video was streamed over an ATM network from an ICL media server to set top boxes designed by Acorn Online Media. The trial starts at a speed of 2 Mbit / s to the home, subsequently increased to 25 Mbit / s. [10] The content was provided by the BBC and Anglia Television . Although a technical success,

In 1997, Enron Corporation had entered the broadband market, constructing throughout the United States. [11] [12] In 2001, Enron and Blockbuster Inc. attempted to create a 20-year deal to stream on-demand Enron’s fiber optic network. [13] However, the “heavily promoted” deal fell through, with Enron’s shares dropping following the announcement. [13]

In 1998, Kingston Communications became the first UK company to launch a full-service VOD service and the first to integrate broadband Internet access through a single set-top box using IP delivery over ADSL. By 2001, Kingston Interactive TV had attracted 15,000 subscribers. After a number of trials, HomeChoice followed in 1999, but were restricted to London . After attracting 40,000 customers, they were bought by Tiscali in 2006 who were in turn bought by Talk Talk in 2009. Cable TV providers Telewest and NTL (now Virgin Media ) launched their VOD services in the United Kingdom in 2005, Competing with the leading traditional pay TV distributor BSkyB . BSkyB responded by launching Sky by broadband , later renamed Sky Anytime on PC . The service went live on January 2, 2006. Sky Anytime on PC uses a legal peer-to-peer approach, based on Kontiki technology, to provide very high capacity multi-point downloads of the video content. Instead of the video content all being downloaded from Sky’s servers, the content comes from multiple users of the system who have already downloaded the same content. Other UK TV broadcasters-have Implemented Their Own Versions of the Saami technology, Such As the BBC ‘s iPlayer , qui lancé is 25 December 2007,

The BBC , ITV and Channel 4 planned to launch a joint platform provisionally called Kangaroo in 2008. [14] This was abandoned in 2009 following complaints investigated by the Competition Commission . Sami That year, the assets of the defunct Project Kangaroo Were Bought by Arqiva , [15] Who used the technology behind the Kangaroo to launch SeeSaw service in February 2010. [16] A year later, HOWEVER, SeeSaw Was shut down from Lack of funding. [17]

Some VOD services require the viewer to have a TV set-top box. This photo shows the Jazzbox VOD service and its accompanying remote control .

VOD services are now available in all parts of the United States , which has the highest overall take-up rate of VOD. [18] In 2010, 80% of American Internet users had watched video online, [19] and 42% of mobile users who downloaded video preferred apps to a normal browser. [20] Streaming VOD systems are available on desktop and mobile platforms from cable providers (in tandem with cable modem technology) Who wears the wide downstream bandwidth present one cable systems to deliver movies and television shows to end users, Who can Typically break fast -forward, and rewind VOD movies due to the low latency and random-access nature of cable technology. The broad distribution of a single signal makes streaming VOD impractical for most satellite television systems. Both EchoStar / Dish Network and DirecTV offer PVR programming to their PVR subscribers of their satellite TV service. In Demand is a cable VOD service that also offers pay-per-view. Once the programs have been downloaded onto a PVR, they can watch, play, pause, and seek at their convenience. VOD is also quite common in more expensive hotels . VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content directly from the internet are widely available. Citation needed ] Both EchoStar / Dish Network and DirecTV offer PVR programming to their PVR subscribers of their satellite TV service. In Demand is a cable VOD service that also offers pay-per-view. Once the programs have been downloaded onto a PVR, they can watch, play, pause, and seek at their convenience. VOD is also quite common in more expensive hotels . VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content directly from the internet are widely available. Citation needed ] Both EchoStar / Dish Network and DirecTV offer PVR programming to their PVR subscribers of their satellite TV service. In Demand is a cable VOD service that also offers pay-per-view. Once the programs have been downloaded onto a PVR, they can watch, play, pause, and seek at their convenience. VOD is also quite common in more expensive hotels . VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content directly from the internet are widely available. Citation needed ] In Demand is a cable VOD service that also offers pay-per-view. Once the programs have been downloaded onto a PVR, they can watch, play, pause, and seek at their convenience. VOD is also quite common in more expensive hotels . VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content directly from the internetare widely available. Citation needed ] In Demand is a cable VOD service that also offers pay-per-view. Once the programs have been downloaded onto a PVR, they can watch, play, pause, and seek at their convenience. VOD is also quite common in more expensive hotels . VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content directly from the internet are widely available. Citation needed ] VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content directly from the internet are widely available. Citation needed ] VOD systems that store and provide a user interface for content directly from the internet are widely available. Citation needed ]

According to the European Audiovisual Observatory , 142 paying VOD services were operating in Europe at the end of 2006. [21] At the January 2010 Consumer Electronic Show in Las Vegas , Sezmi CEO Buno Pati and President Phil Wiser Showed a set-top box with a one- terabyte hard drive qui Could Be used for video on demand services Previously offert through cable TV or broadband . A movie, for example, could be sent out once using a broadcast signal, rather than many times over cable or fiber-optic lines, and this would not involve the expense of adding many miles of lines. Gordon H. Smith, President and CEO of Gordon H. Smith . [22]

Developing VOD required extensive negotiations to identify a financial model that would serve both content creators and cable providers while providing desirable content for viewers and an acceptable price point. Hollywood and cable operator revenue splits. [23] Cable providers offered VOD as part of digital subscription packages, which by 2005, These on-demand packages sometimes include “extras” and “bonus footage” in addition to the regular content.

Role of piracy and peer-to-peer

The neutrality of this section is disputed . Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page . Please do not remove this post up to the conditions to do so are met . (August 2016) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

ALTHOUGH video on demand Generally Refers to delivery Mechanisms operating in according with applicable laws, the motivation for the development of video on demand services can be traced back to peer-to-peer(P2P) networking and the development of file sharing software. These innovations proved that it was technically possible to offer the consumer potentially every film ever made, in a way that does not burden the original provider with the linear costs associated with centralized streaming media . Some P2P services offered movies and TV shows without having paid for the rights. Torrenting is a popular alternative to legal streaming [24]with 6% [25] of global Internet traffic Involved in file sharing applications. Many legal services such as Spotify [26] use peer-to-peer distribution to better “scale” their platforms. Netflix is considering switching to a P2P model [27] to cope with net neutrality problems from downstream providers.

Types

Transactional

Transactional video on demand (TVOD) is a distribution method by which customers pay for each individual piece of video on demand content. [28] For example, a TV show that they watch. TVOD has two sub-categories: electronic sell-through (EST), by which customers can permanently access a piece of content once purchased via Internet; (DTR), by which customers can access the content for a limited time upon renting. [29] [30] Examples of TVOD services include Apple ‘s iTunes online store and Google ‘ s Google Play service.

Catch-up TV

A number of TV stations offer “catch-up TV” as a way to viewers to watch TV shows but their VOD service hours or even days after the original television broadcast. This is a program that allows you to view and view a program. Some TV shows, TV shows, TV shows, TV shows, etc.). [31]

Subscription models

A screenshot of “The Great Courses Plus”, a video on demand service offered by The Teaching Company that offers instructional videos.

Subscription VOD (SVOD) services to a subscription business model , where subscribers are charged a monthly fee to access unlimited programs. These services include Netflix , Hulu Plus , Amazon Video , Videoland , HBO Go and CuriosityStream . [32]

Near video on demand

The examples and perspective in this section May not Represent a worldwide view of the subject . Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page . (February 2015)

Near video on demand (NVOD) is a pay-per-view consumer video technology used by multi-channel broadcasters using high-bandwidth distribution Mechanisms Such As satelliteand cable television . Multiple copies of a program are broadcast at short time intervals (typically 10-20 minutes) providing convenience for viewers, who can watch the program without having to tune in at only scheduled point in time. A viewer may only have to wait a few minutes before the next time a movie will be programmed. This form is very bandwidth- intensive and has a wide range of applications.

Only the satellite services Dish Network and DirecTV continue to provide NVOD experiments. These satellite services provide NVOD because of their broadband VOD services. Before the rise of video on demand, the pay-per-view provider In Demand Provided up to 40 channels in 2002 with Several movies receiving send up to four channels on the staggered schedule to Provide the NVOD experience for viewers. [33] As of 2014, only four channels (two in high definition, two in standard definition) . In Australia, Pay TV broadcaster Foxtel offers NVOD for new release movies. [34]

Push video on demand

Push video on demand is so-named because the provider “pushes” the content out to the viewer’s. This streaming video on demand. This technique uses a number of broadcasters on systems that lack the connectivity and bandwidth to provide true “streaming” video on demand. Push VOD is also used by broadcasters who want to optimize their video streaming infrastructure by pre-loading the most popular content (eg. In this way, the most popular content is already loaded onto a consumer’s DVR-set-top. That way, if the consumer requests one of these films, it is already loaded on her / his DVR. A push VOD system uses a personal video recorder(PVR) to store a selection of content, In a bandwidth. Users can watch the downloaded content at the time they desire, immediately and without any buffering issues. Push VOD depends on the viewer’s recording content, so choices can be limited. [35]

As content occupies space on the PVR hard drive, downloaded content is usually deleted after a week to make way for newer programs or movies. The limited space on a PVR hard drive means that the selection of programs is usually restricted to the most popular content. A new generation of Push VOD solution, which can be used to generate more than one video.

Advertising video on demand

Advertising video on demand is a VOD model that uses an advertising-based revenue model. VOD. VOD. VOD. As well, this model allows people to watch programs without paying subscription fees. Hulu has been one of the major AVOD companies, though the company has free service in August 2016. View Yahoo continued to offer a free AVOD model. Advertisers may find that people watching on VOD services do not want the same ads to appear multiple times. Crackle has introduced the concept of a series of ads for the same company that tie in to what is being watched. [36] [37]

See also

  • Internet portal
  • Direct to video
  • BitTorrent
  • Comparison of video hosting services
  • Music on demand
  • Electronic sell-through

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Broadband Users Control What They Watch and When ArchivedApril 20, 2010 at theWayback Machine.
  2. Jump up^ From Videotape to Video Servers, Technology Drives PPV,Broadcasting & Cable, November 29, 1993, p 66.
  3. Jump up^ NYNEX and Ameritech Are Said to Choose Digital Equipment Corporation to Supply Video-Server System,Wall Street Journal, February 25, 1994, p B8.
  4. Jump up^ SGI Ready Opposing Video-Server Architectures: Video on Demand Battle,Electronic Engineering Times, October 4, 1993, p 1.
  5. Jump up^ Video Servers: IBM nCube and Oracle Challenge, Computergram International, October 29, 1993, p17.
  6. Jump up^ Daniel Minoli, Video Dialtone Technology, 1995, p 441-485.
  7. Jump up^ Daniel Minoli, Video Dialtone Technology, 1995, p 233.
  8. Jump up^ Building the Data Highway, Byte, March 1994, p 46.
  9. Jump up^ “Cambridge iTV Trial” . cam.ac.uk .
  10. Jump up^ Cambridge Corners the Future in Networking, TUANZ Topics, Volume 05, No. 10, November 1995
  11. Jump up^ Schiesel, Seth (11 July 1999). “Jumping Off the Bandwidth Wagon” . The New York Times . Retrieved 17 February 2017 .
  12. Jump up^ “Montana Power, Williams Communications, Enron Units Announce Fiber Providers for Portland-to-Los Angeles Network” . PRNewswire . 17 December 1997 . Retrieved 17 February 2017 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:b Behr, Peter (1 January 2001). “Broadband Strategy Got Enron in Trouble, Bid to Create Market for Fiber-Optic Space Included Aggressive Accounting”. The Washington Post (E01).
  14. Jump up^ Sweney, Mark (2007-11-27). “Broadcasters to launch joint VoD service” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 2008-01-13 .
  15. Jump up^ “Arqiva to launch video-on-demand service using Kangaroo technology” . BBC . 2009-07-23 . Retrieved 2012-09-25 .
  16. Jump up^ “Internet TV service Seesaw launches beta trial” . BBC . 2010-01-26 . Retrieved 2012-09-25 .
  17. Jump up^ Clover, Julian (2011-05-27). “Arqiva to close SeeSaW” . Broadband TV News . Retrieved 2012-09-25 .
  18. Jump up^ “Percentage of subscribers who use video on demand on the TV by country in 2010 and 2011” . Statista . Retrieved 2012-08-30 .
  19. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 26 November 2010 . Retrieved 16 November 2010 .
  20. Jump up^ Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything . Perseus Books / Vanguard Press. p. 86. ISBN  978-1593157203 .
  21. Jump up^ Video on demand and catch-up TV in Europe ArchivedOctober 3, 2011 at theWayback Machine.
  22. Jump up^ Dickson, Glen (9 January 2010). “NAB Shows Off New Spectrum Applications” . Broadcasting & Cable . Retrieved 13 January 2010 .
  23. Jump up^ Rizzuto, Ronald J. Wirth (2002). “The Economics of Video On Demand: A Simulation Analysis”. Journal of Media Economics . 15 (3): 209. doi : 10.1207 / s15327736me1503_5 .
  24. Jump up^ Siegal, Jacob. “‘Netflix for pirates’ brings streaming video to BitTorrent users” . Retrieved 22 March 2014 .
  25. Jump up^ “Application Usage & Threat Report” .
  26. Jump up^ Ernesto. “Spotify: A Massive P2P Network, Blessed by Record Labels” . Retrieved 22 March 2014 .
  27. Jump up^ Brinkmann, Martin. “Could Netflix switch to P2P to lower ISP pressure?” . Retrieved 22 March 2014 .
  28. Jump up^ Kehoe, Keith. “VOD Rights Models” . Retrieved 2015-12-09 .
  29. Jump up^ Kehoe, Keith. “VOD Rights Models” . Retrieved 2015-12-09 .
  30. Jump up^ Kaysen, Mads (Aug 24, 2015). “Understand the” SVOD “,” TVOD “and” AVOD “terms and business models of streaming services like Netflix . LinkedIn . LinkedIn . Retrieved Dec 9, 2015 .
  31. Jump up^ Gonçalves, Diogo; Costa, Miguel; Couto, Francisco M. (2016-09-15). “A Large-Scale Characterization of User Behavior in Cable TV” . 3rd Workshop on Television and Online Video (RecSysTV), Boston, MA, USA .
  32. Jump up^ Wallenstein, Andrew. “The OTT View-niverse: A Map of the New Video Ecosystem” . Variety . Variety . Retrieved 17 June 2015 .
  33. Jump up^ “Echelon Studios” . Echelon Studios .
  34. Jump up^ “Store Store + Box Office titles – Store + Box Office – Foxtel Support” . Www.foxtel.com.au . Retrieved 2015-12-09 .
  35. Jump up^ Anderson, Casey. “What Is VOD Technology?” . Smallbusiness.chron.com . Chron.
  36. Jump up^ Baysinger, Tim (2016-08-15). “For Ad VOD Players, Success Is Blend of Linear, Digital Models”. Broadcasting & Cable : 18.
  37. Jump up^ “Tech Tweets”. Broadcasting & Cable : 23. 2016-08-15.

References

  • Marriott, Michel (2007-08-06). “Nothing to Watch on TV? Streaming Video Appeals to Niche Audiences” . The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-04-01 .
  • “Google entering video-on-demand business” . CNET News . 2006-01-09 . Retrieved 2016-05-23 .
  • “On-demand media: Re-inventing the retail business model” . Screen Digest . March 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-03-18 . Retrieved 2008-04-01 .
  • “Pioneer Optical Disc Expertise Advance On-Demand DVD Entertainment” . Reuters . 2008-01-06 . Retrieved 2008-04-01 .
  • Lotz, Amanda D. (2007) “The Television Will Be Revolutionized”. New York, NY: New York City University Press. p. 59
  • McGregor, Michael A., Driscoll, Paul D., McDowell, Walter (2010) “Head of Broadcasting in America: A Survey of Electronic Media”. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon p. 47-48.
  • “The Video on Demand Business Index” . Retrieved 2011-04-27 .
  • “MAVISE, Database on television and on-demand audiovisual services in Europe (European Audiovisual Observatory)” .
  • “Market Intelligence on the European Audiovisual Observatory” .

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